Wednesday, June 26, 2019

BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION


                                     BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION


WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY?

Biodiversity is the foundation of life on earth and one of the pillars of sustainable development.

The total diversity and variability of living things and the systems of which they are a part. This leaves open the question of how much priority should be given to the functioning of the ecological system and how much to the list of species that make up that system. Tropical forests are so diverse that it is impossible to explicitly monitor and manage all the living organisms that they contain.


Biodiversity is integrated with the other physical and social, ecosystem components. The physical environment includes the local and global climate, soils, and watercourses. These are often monitored alongside species diversity when forest health is assessed. Even water and nutrient cycles are poorly understood in tropical forests.




WHAT IS THE MAJOR CAUSE OF BIODIVERSITY?
Loss of biodiversity occurs when either the habitat essential for the survival of a species is destroyed, or particular species are destroyed. The former is more common as habitat destruction is a fallout of development. The latter reason is encountered when particular species are exploited for economic gain of hunted for sport or food.
Extinction of species may also be due to environmental factors like ecological substitutions, biological factors and pathological causes which can be caused by nature or men.
Natural cause and man-made causes for the loss of biodiversity:-
Natural causes include floods, earthquakes, landslides, natural competition between species, lack of pollination and diseases.

MAN-MADE CAUSES:
1.   Destruction of habitat in the wake of development activities like housing, agriculture, construction of dams, reservoirs, roads, railway tracks, etc.
2.   Pollution, a gift of industrial revolution can be given the pride of place for driving a variety of species in air, water and land towards extinction.
3.   Motorcars, air-conditioners and refrigerators, the three symbols of a modern, affluent society, have been instrumental in global warming and ozone depletion.

WHAT IS THE NEED OF BIODIVERSITY?
Human should conserve biodiversity because of its benefit for example services and biological resources which are essential to live our life on earth. However, it also provide spiritual benefits as well as social benefit. Biodiversity is of great importance in order to maintain stable ecosystems.

CONVENTION OF BIODIVERSITY?/ WHAT IS THE MAIN PURPOSE OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION?
The aim of convention is to save species and plants from extinction and their habitats from extinction.

WHY BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION NECESSARY?
Biodiversity is of great importance in order to maintain stable ecosystems. With more plants, trees and animals the soils improve and become stronger-less prone to erosion, drought and flooding.

WHAT IS ‘ECOSYSTEM APPROACH’ AND ON WHAT IT FOCUSES?
It is a strategy for integrated management of land, water and living resources. It promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way.

This approach focuses on:
1.   Functional relationships and processes within ecosystems including human activities.
2.   How benefits from ecosystems services are distributed among people.
3.   Management by government and the community.
4.   Co-operation between different agencies.
Types of biodiversity conservation:
Usually ex-situ conservation is meant as a supplement to in-situ conservation, to ensure that some taxa that may not survive in the wild or on farms do not get totally wiped out, or to provide breeding facilities from which plants or animals can be reintroduced into in-situ conditions.
It is important not to consider ex-situ as a substitute to in-situ conservation. This is because the evolutionary factors that are so important in keeping alive biodiversity and maintaining the health of the ecosystem, are available only in in-situ conditions. Ex-situ conservation is typically very expensive.

PROJECTS TO SAVE THREATENED SPECIES:
1.   Project Tigers: it aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tiger in their natural habitats.
2.   Crocodile breeding project.
3.   Project Elephant:
4.   Mangrove restoration.
5.   Rich plant biodiversity of Sahyadri.
6.   Medicinal plants conservation areas.
7.   Conservation of Sarus cranes
8.   Restoring the Mahseer(fish)
9.    Project Snow Leopard and projects for One Horned Rhinoceros

MEASURES FOR BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE ARE AS FOLLOWS:
1.   Protecting and safeguarding representative ecosystems including by identifying critical habitats which are free of human presence.
2.   Halting the loss of species and genetic diversity.
3.   Integrating biodiversity in development planning at village/town, state and national levels.
4.   Avoiding loss of natural habitats, including forests, and preventing their degradation and fragmentations.
5.   Restoration of ecosystems.
6.   Maintaining harvests from the wild at sustainable levels, including of fisheries and from forests and grasslands.
7.   Adopting sustainable cultivation practices that conserve the genetic diversity of cultivated species and preventing pollution from chemicals used in agriculture, aquaculture and forestry.
8.   Involving people through participatory planning and knowledge management in conservation actions in different sector. 



VISUALIZE THE FUTURE:
The application of these guidelines will require that specialized training and financial incentives become available at the national and forest management unit level. Subsidies, environmental payments and/or tax concessions will have to be introduced in tropical producer countries. The international community has a role to play in supporting pilot programmes, funding the conservation of globally threatened species and transferring technology to tropical producer countries.
Many international agencies have an interest in biodiversity conservation and many will have a role to play in ensuring that the messages in these guidelines are put into practice. Several of these agencies have contributed to these guidelines. The guidelines themselves build upon the work of the convention of biological diversity. CIFOR and other specialized biodiversity agencies.
Different categories of forest have differing but complementary roles in achieving biodiversity conservation so different international and national agencies also have different roles to play. The expertise that is required is scattered through a range of public and private institutions. Research and operational bodies all have contribution to make. There will be a need for new partnerships and alliances. Some of the most interesting in this field have come where international conservation NGOs have worked closely with logging concessionaires and private forest owners to help them improve their management of biodiversity.
Many tropical production forest countries now have National Biodiversity strategies and Action Plans and these same countries have National Forest Programmes. Often the links between these two planning frameworks are not as good as they might be. Biodiversity conservation in production forests fails at the interface of NBSAPs and NFPs. This is a symptom of the fact that environmental and forestry issues are often dealt with by separate agencies. More inter-agency collaboration is needed. The FAO Forest Resource Assessment for the year 2005 will include biodiversity. This will provide an opportunity to bring together at a global scale the information from both protected areas and managed forests.
As more of the world’s wood fibre is produced in plantations and the remaining natural forests are increasingly valued for their environmental functions it is likely that conserving biodiversity will become an increasingly dominant element of forest management in the tropics. This is already the case in manly temperate and boreal countries.
ITTO could play a pivotal role in the process of reconciling biodiversity aims and production aims in tropical forests. It brings together the managers of many of the world most important tropical forests and is already strongly engaged in supporting protected areas. It could make major contributions to the exchange of information and technologies and to the forging of the partnership that will be required these guidelines are to have the impact that is needed.


In last few years, human beings have modified the Earth. In the course of usage of natural resources, with a much more rapid rate of change in recent decades, for improving the human condition.
GEOSPHERE: the geosphere is the solid part or crust of the Earth which is made of soils, rocks, minerals, etc.
BIOSPHERE: the biosphere is the zone of life on earth. It is the global sum of all ecosystems such as mountains, drylands, tropical forests, urban systems, wetlands, and marine, island and coastal ecosystems etc. each type of ecosystem supports certain kinds of plants, animals, insects and other life forms in interaction with the land, air and water.
Global consumption of water, food, energy and minerals has grown rapidly
In recent years, both overall and per capita.
The geosphere changes associated with increased consumption include large scale conversion of natural ecosystems to agriculture, degradation of ecosystems, reduced populations of several species of plant and animals, pollution, global warming, depletion of the ozone layer, acidification of oceans and climate change.
CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND QUANTITY OF MATERIALS AND ENERGY USED:
Global consumption of water, food, energy and minerals has grown rapidly in the recent years both overall and per capita.
Over the past two to three decades, there are lots of changes in our locality as the people are dependent on local and global ecosystem services, land use, population, status or quality of the environment etc.
Since last 2 to 3 decades the population of our locality has immensely increased with the increase in the transport vehicles like mostly people use cars as nowadays it has become easy for everyone to purchase expensive and luxurious articles, which has caused lots of traffic on road and also pollution. Before 2 to 3 decades we use to see sparrows, pigeons, crows, cuckoos, parrots, cats, dogs, goats and many more animals nearby in our locality but due to mobile towers constructed, fly-overs etc. now they are not seen. And also nowadays more long storey buildings are built due to increase in the population and also due to the greedy nature of man which is causing lots of problems and pollution, which is also causing changes in the climate.
WHAT HAVE BEEN THE CHANGES IN THE USE OF ENERGY AND MATERIALS AND WHAT IS THE IMPACT?
EXAMPLE—1: Nowadays there is lot of use of electronic gadgets like different types of bulbs, interior decoration bulbs, colourful bulbs, different types of fans, irons, refrigerator, television, radio, washing machines, geyser, food processor/mixer, electric stove, DVD player, computer, mobile phones, etc. which has resulted in the increase of use of electricity. Before every member of the family use to sit and eat in one room but nowadays every member sits in his or her room which results in the increase in the consumption of electricity. And also the greed of the people has increased with the facilities provided to him for example when parents have one house or flat then the parents arrange another flat or house for their children which increases the differences among the family members and also increase in the consumption of all the facilities whether it is the land or nature or other facilities provided by the nature and also by the technology.
EXAMPLE—2: Nowadays there is lot of use of mobiles of screen touch, people sitting nearby don’t speak to each other and are using mobile. Due to use of more mobile there is lack of communication between people also all members of the family using mobile and not communicating with each other at home also which is causing misunderstanding, miscommunication, irritation and frustration among the members of the family. And also the rays of mobile towers established in the residential area have impact on the health of old and younger children or the new born babies or the pregnant women.
1st there used to be only one landline in the house but nowadays each and every member of the house has the mobile phone of different technologies and facilities in them.
TWO ASPECTS OF HUMAN USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES HAVE AN IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT:
1.   The size of the human population, and
2.   Social and economic systems, and technologies, related to extraction or harvest of resources, manufacturing and consumption.
For example, market demands, trade and globalization patterns lead to extraction of resources and transport of products across long distances. An increase in the number of people consuming products increase the overall volume of production. Increase in production means increase in transportation of both, raw materials and finished goods. Increased transportation means an increase in the use of fossil fuels, which is leading cause of climate change. Climate change in turn is impacting biodiversity.
LOCAL, REGIONAL AND GLOBAL IMPACTS OF INCREASED CONSUMPTION:
Human well-being is dependent on the state of the natural environment.
As the level of consumption and the size of the human population has risen, so has the nature and scale of environmental change. The major direct causes have been the extraction and exploitation of resources, land conversion, pollution and invasions by non-native species. Climate change and other forms of pollution are becoming increasingly important factors.
There are a number of impacts of conversion of ecosystems when we extract, harvest and use energy sources and use different types of raw material and transport them. Certain impacts at a global scale include:
1.   Biodiversity loss
2.   Build-up of harmful substances and hazardous waste
3.   Build up of nitrogen
4.   Accumulation of wastes
5.   Oceans acidification
6.   Climate change.



    





















MY ACTIONS IN MY DAY’S SCHEDULE THAT CAN CONSERVE BIODIVERSITY ARE AS FOLLOWS:
1.   Don’t keep the tap open while brushing/cleaning utensils/washing clothes and also instead of cleaning the floor with lots of water and broom wipe with wet cloth and with little water.
2.   Use cloth bags instead of polythene bags for buying vegetables /for shopping.
3.   Keep the wet and dry garbage separately and keep the green leafy waste and fruits peels waste to give to either cow or goat.
4.   Not to pour contaminated water on plants instead while washing vegetables or fruits use that water in plants or in your garden pots.
5.   Not to contaminate river or pond water by washing clothes/cleaning utensils.
6.   Instead of using private transport like scooter, motobyke, cars etc. use government transport so that there are less vehicles/cars on the road which causes traffic and pollution. Also to reduce traffic and pollution if any car/motobyke/scooter is used for transport it shall be used cooperatively with 2-4 persons so that the petrol/diesel is consumed less.
7.   Use all the natural resources judiciously so that coming generations can also use them proportionately.
8.   Buy sustainably certified wood products.
9.   Consume organic food.
10.                Use cycle for short distances to reduce pollution and for less consumption of petrol/diesel /any vehicle.
11.                Reduce meat consumption.
12.                Follow the 3 r’s—reuse, reduce and recycle, for example: distilled vinegar for cleaning and also buy less stuff i.e. buy only what is required, cook only what is required.
13.                Don’t put the food waste in the dustbin instead give to cow/goat/dog to eat.
14.                Use environment friendly cleaning products and detergents.
15.                While consuming the LPG gas don’t keep the food for extra time, cook/warm food again and again, cook and eat when it is required and also close the knob of the regulator after cooking and also use the pipeline gas (bio-gas) instead of cylinder gas for consumption.
16.                Reduce usage of electricity –all the members of a family shall sit together so that electricity usage is reduced and only while sleeping everyone to go to their rooms, and also use less electronic gadgets for cooking or for any other use the usage should be less so that there is conservation of electricity.
17.                Grow trees in and around our surroundings.
18.                Don’t use fertilizers in the gardens instead use organic and homemade manure.
19.                Don’t waste paper. Use the left over blank pages of note book for rough work or for calculations or for making list of products to purchase.
20.                Keep the place in and around us clean and hygiene by putting the waste in their proper place and not throwing it here and there on the road or in the lane.
21.                Give your used clothes/books/toys/and many more things which are not required by us or which are waste for use to the person who is in actual need of it that that there is less consumption and production of that product. 

















Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Pesticides, its merits, demerits, causes and alternatives



                    WHAT ARE PESTICIDES, ITS DEFINITION?







Pesticides are chemical substances that are meant to kill pests. In general, a pesticide is a chemical or a biological agent such as a virus, bacterium, antimicrobial, or disinfectant that deters, incapacitates, kills, pests.




The most common of these are herbicides which account for approximately 80% of all pesticide use. Most pesticides are intended to serve as plant protection products (also known as crop protection products), which in general, protect plants from weeds, fungi, or insects.




Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or controlling any pest, including Vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants and animals, causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances that may be administered to animals, arachnids, or archer pests in or on their bodies.



ORIGIN OF THE WORD PESTICIDES:

Since before 2000BC, humans have utilized Pesticides to protect their crops. The first known pesticides was elemental Sulphur dusting used in ancient Sumer about 4500years ago in ancient Mesopotamia.
Ancient Sumerians used elemental Sulphur to protect their crops from insects, whereas Medival farmers experimented with Chemical using arsenic, lead on common crops.
In 1939DICHLORO-DIPHENYLE-TRICHLORO-ETHANE(DDT) WAS DISCOVERED, WHICH HAS become extremely effective and rapidly used as the insecticide in the World. However 23 years later due to biological effects and human safety, DDT has been banned in almost 86 countries.


TYPES OF PESTICIDES:

There are many different types of pesticides, each is meant to be effective against specific pests. The term "-cide" comes from the Latin word "to kill."



The most commonly applied pesticides are:
1.   Insecticides to kill insects,
2.   Herbicides to kill weeds,
3.   Rodenticides to kill rodents and
4.   Fungicides to control fungi, mold, mildew etc.



THESE ARE GROUPED ACCORDING TO THE TYPES OF PESTS THEY KILL, WHICH ARE AS FOLLLOWS:
1.   INSECTICIDES—INSECTS
2.   HERBICIDES—PLANTS
3.   RODENTICIDES----RODENTS(RATS & MICE)
4.   BACTERICIDES---BACTERIA
5.   FUNGICIDES---FUNGI
6.   LARVICIDES---LARVAE
7.   BIODEGRADABLE---THIS KIND IS THOSE WHICH CAN BE BROKEN DOWN BY MICROBES AND OTHER LIVING BEINGS INTO HARMLESS COMPOUNDS
8.   PERSISTENT—THESE ARE ONE THOSE WHICH MAY TAKE MONTHS OR YEARS TO BREAK-DOWN
9.   CHEMICALLY-RELATED PESTICIDES----E.G.—ORGANOPHOSPHATE---THEY EFFECT THE NERVOUS SYSTEM BY DISRUPTING THE ENZYME THAT REGULATES A NEUROTRANSMITTER.






EFFECTS, MERITS AND DEMERITS OR EFFECTS, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES:



EFFECTS:
1.   Pesticides are poisonous and unfortunately they can harm more than just “pest” at which they are targeted.
2.   They are toxic and exposure to pesticides cannot only cause a number of health effects, but is linked to a range of serious illness and diseases in humans, from respiratory problems to cancer.

3.   Acute health problems may occur in workers that handle pesticides such as abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, as well as skin and eye problems.

4.  Also has harmful effect to environment and soil.

5.   It has long term impact on environment and pollution.






                                              








                                    ADVANTAGES:


1.   With the use of pesticides more crops grow on our land so that we can gain more from exporting our produce to other countries.

2.   New types of pesticides makes the use of herbicides or fertilizers possible and there is no damage to the crops.


3.   To improve crop quality and supply and greatly improved Human Health around the World.

4.   Pesticides improve crop production and harvest productivity.

5.   Pesticides also prevent diseases found in fresh fruits and vegetables as well.

6.   Chemical pesticides now go through thorough and expensive test before Government Registration and release.

7.   Pesticides have been linked with human health hazards, from short-term impacts such as headaches and nausea to chronic impacts like cancer, reproductive harm.

8.   The use of these also decreases the general bio-diversity in the soil. If there are no chemicals in the soil there is a higher soil quality and this allows for higher water retention, which is necessary for plants to grow.

9.   Controlling pests and plant disease vectors.

10.               Controlling human/livestock disease vectors and nuisance organisms.

11.               Controlling organisms that harm other human activities and structures.

                                 DISADVANTAGES:

1.   They are able to restrain pests, but it can also kill other organisms as well.

2.   Not only they can affect animals but they can effect humans.
3.   A pesticide is a biological, physical or chemical agent used to kill plants or animals that are harmful to people.
4.    The main disadvantage of pesticides is that they are very hazardous to our health if used incorrectly.



5.   Health being threatened by the continuous use of pesticides that are known health hazards.
6.   Another disadvantage is that pesticides can be cause for cancer for anyone who are often exposed to pesticides.
7.   Chemical could also cause birth defects.
8.   Accidental inhalation, on the job.
9.   Cause a number of pollution problems through spray drift on to surrounding areas direct contamination of users or the public and as residues on food.
10.               The WHO estimated in 1999 that 20,000 people die annually world-wide from pesticides poisoning incident.
11.               Effects of pesticides residues in foods, especially for infants, whose system have weaker resistance levels to poisons.
 levels to poisons.





CAUSES:

PEOPLE CAN EXPERIENCE UNINTENTIONAL PESTICIDES EXPOSURES IN A NUMBER OF WAYS INCLUDING:-

1.   Not following label safety instructions when using pesticides. Wearing rubber gloves and protective eyewear can prevent over-exposure.

2.   Applying too much pesticides product.

3.   Applying pesticide products in breezy conditions.

4.   Improperly using a pesticide e.g. staying in rooms where foggers are used or using outdoor use products inside your house.

5.   Storing pesticides in an unsecured place that children and pets can access.

6.   Accidental exposure such as spills.

7.   Not wearing recommended personal protective equipments (e.g. rubber gloves, protective eyewear, long pants, long sleeved shirts).

8.   Equipment malfunction.

9.   Post-application exposure from a treated area.

10.               Accidental exposure from aerial treatment or spray drift.

11.               Pets, domestic animals and wildlife (such as mammals, birds, fish, insects and plants) can experience unintentional exposure to pesticides.

12.               The environment (air, soil and water) can be contaminated by pesticides overuse.



                                ALTERNATIVES TO PESTICIDES:

1.   BY C PLANTING: maggots prefer radishes over corn and tomato, worms prefer dill over tomatoes. Therefore certain plants can be strategically placed so that they lure harmful insects away from plants you wish to protect. These are commonly referred to as “trap plants”.
2.   BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS: use of larger natural predators include the use of birds and other insects. E.g. in a small town in Michigan, cockroaches became so plentiful that they were coming home in student’s lunch boxes. Michigan state passed laws requiring schools to seek alternatives to chemical pest. According to De Fazio, Allegari’s school system became the 1st in the Country to eliminate pesticides in favour of biological controls. Now the cockroaches in Allegar School district are dined on by tiny wasp parasitoids and attacked by nematodes placed in strategic locations throughout the school. These wasp are the size of a pinhead and when we consistently apply and manage the biological controls, they work. The little predators were so hungry soon the cockroaches all disappeared.
3.   BACTERIAL PREDATORS: ONE OF THE MOST COMMONLY USED BACTERIAL SPECIES IS bt/Bacillies thurigensis. At sporulation, the bacterium produces a spore and a protein crystal which releases powerful toxins when degraded by the gut fluids in larvae consuming it; death can occur in 30 minutes to 3 days. Timing has to be right—larvae must be feeding on leaves treated with spores. Doesn’t work with adults not feeding on leaves.
4.   VIRUSES: 1600 virus isolates which can cause disease in 1100 species of insects. i.e. a peptide hormone was isolated and incorporated into a baculovirus. The peptide was active in preventing larvae feeding and causing mortality among corn earworm larvae.
5.   FUNGI: fungi control involves the use of another non-pathogenic fungus. Unchecked, wilt fungi waste little time invading a plant through its roots and xylem, or vascular water supply system. The pathogens use the xylem as a conduit to spread and grow in the plant, causing blockages and stealing vital nutrients. Such assaults can exact a heavy toll on yield. The protect out microbes colonize the root system better than their pathogenic brethren. They live on and in the vicinity of the roots, as well as just inside the roots’ epidermis, or outer cell layer. There they crowd out the competing pathogens for sugars, amino acids and other nutrients both need in order to flourish but the good fungi don’t cause disease and they are not fungal freeloaders. Helping plants to help themselves. Scientist named the phenomenon induced systemic resistance. In greenhouse studies, Fravel and Larkin observed the response in tomatoes, muskmelons and watermelons. ‘induced systemic resistance’ might be likened to the immune response of a child vaccinated against a germ-caused disease. As part of treatment, a doctor administers a weakened form/strain of the germ to the young patient.
6.   NEMATODES: they are simple worms consisting of an elongated stomach and reproduction system inside a resistant outer cuticle. Mostly nematodes are so small between 400 micrometers to 5mm long. Their small size, resistant cuticle and ability to adapt to severe and changing environments have made nematodes one of the most abundant types of animals on earth; most of the nematodes feed on bacteria, fungi and other soil organisms. Other are parasitic, obtaining their food from animals (such as the dog heartworm), humans (such as the pinworm) and plants. Agricultural cultivation encourages an increase in parasitic nematodes that feed on the crops being grown.
7.   PHEROMONES: THESE SYNTHESIZED CHEMICALS act to attract the opposite sex into bags/traps. Insects of the same species can communicate with one another by releasing small quantities of chemical substances from their bodies into the air. These distinct ‘scents’ which are called pheromones, will attract others to the source of that attraction. As a result it is now possible to communicate with certain insects by using these synthesized pheromones enabling us to attract them, or disrupt them from their normal behaviour.
8.   JUVENILE HORMONES: Anti juvenile and juvenile hormones mess up the moulting cycles of insects.
9.   BOLL WEEVIL: common name for a destructive beetle that infests cotton plants. The adult insect has a long snout, is grayish in colour, and is usually less then 6mm(less than 0.24 in) long. Feeding only on the cotton plant, it begins in early spring to puncture the buds and bolls and lay its eggs in them. The eggs hatch into larvae in 3 to 5 days. The life cycle of the boll weevil from egg to egg laying adults is about 3 weeks. 4 or 5 generations may breed in one season.
10.               SUSTAINABLE FARMING WORK/AGRICULTURE:

                     CULTURAL METHODS:

1.   Rotating crops to decrease weeds and insects while also increasing soil nitrogen and decreasing soil loss.

2.   Burning infested crop residues to kill off eggs instead of tilling back into earth.

3.   Planting crops at times that conflict with pest emergence.

4.   Mixed crops—plant crops with horizontal v/s vertical leaves so pests can move readily or mixed crops which appeal to limited insect tastes so not one species can grow quickly.

THESE TECHNIQUES REQUIRE MORE KNOWLEDGE, MORE LABOUR.





NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL PESTICIDES:


Natural techniques involving compounds made with the roots of tropical vegetables and chrysanthemums.

Types of Natural Pesticides:
a. Fungicides
b. Herbicides
c. Insecticides











    Artificial Pesticides-Arsenic and mercury compounds to control body lice and other pesticides. Oil, ash, sulphur and other materials to protect their livestock and their crops from various pesticides.

Artificial or Specific Synthetic Chemical pesticides are:
a. Glyphosate
b. Acephate
c. Deet
d. Propoxur
e. Metaldehyde
f. Boric acid
g. Diazinon
h. Dursban
I. DDT
j. Malathion