Wednesday, June 26, 2019


                                     BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION


Biodiversity is the foundation of life on earth and one of the pillars of sustainable development.

The total diversity and variability of living things and the systems of which they are a part. This leaves open the question of how much priority should be given to the functioning of the ecological system and how much to the list of species that make up that system. Tropical forests are so diverse that it is impossible to explicitly monitor and manage all the living organisms that they contain.

Biodiversity is integrated with the other physical and social, ecosystem components. The physical environment includes the local and global climate, soils, and watercourses. These are often monitored alongside species diversity when forest health is assessed. Even water and nutrient cycles are poorly understood in tropical forests.

Loss of biodiversity occurs when either the habitat essential for the survival of a species is destroyed, or particular species are destroyed. The former is more common as habitat destruction is a fallout of development. The latter reason is encountered when particular species are exploited for economic gain of hunted for sport or food.
Extinction of species may also be due to environmental factors like ecological substitutions, biological factors and pathological causes which can be caused by nature or men.
Natural cause and man-made causes for the loss of biodiversity:-
Natural causes include floods, earthquakes, landslides, natural competition between species, lack of pollination and diseases.

1.   Destruction of habitat in the wake of development activities like housing, agriculture, construction of dams, reservoirs, roads, railway tracks, etc.
2.   Pollution, a gift of industrial revolution can be given the pride of place for driving a variety of species in air, water and land towards extinction.
3.   Motorcars, air-conditioners and refrigerators, the three symbols of a modern, affluent society, have been instrumental in global warming and ozone depletion.

Human should conserve biodiversity because of its benefit for example services and biological resources which are essential to live our life on earth. However, it also provide spiritual benefits as well as social benefit. Biodiversity is of great importance in order to maintain stable ecosystems.

The aim of convention is to save species and plants from extinction and their habitats from extinction.

Biodiversity is of great importance in order to maintain stable ecosystems. With more plants, trees and animals the soils improve and become stronger-less prone to erosion, drought and flooding.

It is a strategy for integrated management of land, water and living resources. It promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way.

This approach focuses on:
1.   Functional relationships and processes within ecosystems including human activities.
2.   How benefits from ecosystems services are distributed among people.
3.   Management by government and the community.
4.   Co-operation between different agencies.
Types of biodiversity conservation:
Usually ex-situ conservation is meant as a supplement to in-situ conservation, to ensure that some taxa that may not survive in the wild or on farms do not get totally wiped out, or to provide breeding facilities from which plants or animals can be reintroduced into in-situ conditions.
It is important not to consider ex-situ as a substitute to in-situ conservation. This is because the evolutionary factors that are so important in keeping alive biodiversity and maintaining the health of the ecosystem, are available only in in-situ conditions. Ex-situ conservation is typically very expensive.

1.   Project Tigers: it aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tiger in their natural habitats.
2.   Crocodile breeding project.
3.   Project Elephant:
4.   Mangrove restoration.
5.   Rich plant biodiversity of Sahyadri.
6.   Medicinal plants conservation areas.
7.   Conservation of Sarus cranes
8.   Restoring the Mahseer(fish)
9.    Project Snow Leopard and projects for One Horned Rhinoceros

1.   Protecting and safeguarding representative ecosystems including by identifying critical habitats which are free of human presence.
2.   Halting the loss of species and genetic diversity.
3.   Integrating biodiversity in development planning at village/town, state and national levels.
4.   Avoiding loss of natural habitats, including forests, and preventing their degradation and fragmentations.
5.   Restoration of ecosystems.
6.   Maintaining harvests from the wild at sustainable levels, including of fisheries and from forests and grasslands.
7.   Adopting sustainable cultivation practices that conserve the genetic diversity of cultivated species and preventing pollution from chemicals used in agriculture, aquaculture and forestry.
8.   Involving people through participatory planning and knowledge management in conservation actions in different sector. 

The application of these guidelines will require that specialized training and financial incentives become available at the national and forest management unit level. Subsidies, environmental payments and/or tax concessions will have to be introduced in tropical producer countries. The international community has a role to play in supporting pilot programmes, funding the conservation of globally threatened species and transferring technology to tropical producer countries.
Many international agencies have an interest in biodiversity conservation and many will have a role to play in ensuring that the messages in these guidelines are put into practice. Several of these agencies have contributed to these guidelines. The guidelines themselves build upon the work of the convention of biological diversity. CIFOR and other specialized biodiversity agencies.
Different categories of forest have differing but complementary roles in achieving biodiversity conservation so different international and national agencies also have different roles to play. The expertise that is required is scattered through a range of public and private institutions. Research and operational bodies all have contribution to make. There will be a need for new partnerships and alliances. Some of the most interesting in this field have come where international conservation NGOs have worked closely with logging concessionaires and private forest owners to help them improve their management of biodiversity.
Many tropical production forest countries now have National Biodiversity strategies and Action Plans and these same countries have National Forest Programmes. Often the links between these two planning frameworks are not as good as they might be. Biodiversity conservation in production forests fails at the interface of NBSAPs and NFPs. This is a symptom of the fact that environmental and forestry issues are often dealt with by separate agencies. More inter-agency collaboration is needed. The FAO Forest Resource Assessment for the year 2005 will include biodiversity. This will provide an opportunity to bring together at a global scale the information from both protected areas and managed forests.
As more of the world’s wood fibre is produced in plantations and the remaining natural forests are increasingly valued for their environmental functions it is likely that conserving biodiversity will become an increasingly dominant element of forest management in the tropics. This is already the case in manly temperate and boreal countries.
ITTO could play a pivotal role in the process of reconciling biodiversity aims and production aims in tropical forests. It brings together the managers of many of the world most important tropical forests and is already strongly engaged in supporting protected areas. It could make major contributions to the exchange of information and technologies and to the forging of the partnership that will be required these guidelines are to have the impact that is needed.

In last few years, human beings have modified the Earth. In the course of usage of natural resources, with a much more rapid rate of change in recent decades, for improving the human condition.
GEOSPHERE: the geosphere is the solid part or crust of the Earth which is made of soils, rocks, minerals, etc.
BIOSPHERE: the biosphere is the zone of life on earth. It is the global sum of all ecosystems such as mountains, drylands, tropical forests, urban systems, wetlands, and marine, island and coastal ecosystems etc. each type of ecosystem supports certain kinds of plants, animals, insects and other life forms in interaction with the land, air and water.
Global consumption of water, food, energy and minerals has grown rapidly
In recent years, both overall and per capita.
The geosphere changes associated with increased consumption include large scale conversion of natural ecosystems to agriculture, degradation of ecosystems, reduced populations of several species of plant and animals, pollution, global warming, depletion of the ozone layer, acidification of oceans and climate change.
Global consumption of water, food, energy and minerals has grown rapidly in the recent years both overall and per capita.
Over the past two to three decades, there are lots of changes in our locality as the people are dependent on local and global ecosystem services, land use, population, status or quality of the environment etc.
Since last 2 to 3 decades the population of our locality has immensely increased with the increase in the transport vehicles like mostly people use cars as nowadays it has become easy for everyone to purchase expensive and luxurious articles, which has caused lots of traffic on road and also pollution. Before 2 to 3 decades we use to see sparrows, pigeons, crows, cuckoos, parrots, cats, dogs, goats and many more animals nearby in our locality but due to mobile towers constructed, fly-overs etc. now they are not seen. And also nowadays more long storey buildings are built due to increase in the population and also due to the greedy nature of man which is causing lots of problems and pollution, which is also causing changes in the climate.
EXAMPLE—1: Nowadays there is lot of use of electronic gadgets like different types of bulbs, interior decoration bulbs, colourful bulbs, different types of fans, irons, refrigerator, television, radio, washing machines, geyser, food processor/mixer, electric stove, DVD player, computer, mobile phones, etc. which has resulted in the increase of use of electricity. Before every member of the family use to sit and eat in one room but nowadays every member sits in his or her room which results in the increase in the consumption of electricity. And also the greed of the people has increased with the facilities provided to him for example when parents have one house or flat then the parents arrange another flat or house for their children which increases the differences among the family members and also increase in the consumption of all the facilities whether it is the land or nature or other facilities provided by the nature and also by the technology.
EXAMPLE—2: Nowadays there is lot of use of mobiles of screen touch, people sitting nearby don’t speak to each other and are using mobile. Due to use of more mobile there is lack of communication between people also all members of the family using mobile and not communicating with each other at home also which is causing misunderstanding, miscommunication, irritation and frustration among the members of the family. And also the rays of mobile towers established in the residential area have impact on the health of old and younger children or the new born babies or the pregnant women.
1st there used to be only one landline in the house but nowadays each and every member of the house has the mobile phone of different technologies and facilities in them.
1.   The size of the human population, and
2.   Social and economic systems, and technologies, related to extraction or harvest of resources, manufacturing and consumption.
For example, market demands, trade and globalization patterns lead to extraction of resources and transport of products across long distances. An increase in the number of people consuming products increase the overall volume of production. Increase in production means increase in transportation of both, raw materials and finished goods. Increased transportation means an increase in the use of fossil fuels, which is leading cause of climate change. Climate change in turn is impacting biodiversity.
Human well-being is dependent on the state of the natural environment.
As the level of consumption and the size of the human population has risen, so has the nature and scale of environmental change. The major direct causes have been the extraction and exploitation of resources, land conversion, pollution and invasions by non-native species. Climate change and other forms of pollution are becoming increasingly important factors.
There are a number of impacts of conversion of ecosystems when we extract, harvest and use energy sources and use different types of raw material and transport them. Certain impacts at a global scale include:
1.   Biodiversity loss
2.   Build-up of harmful substances and hazardous waste
3.   Build up of nitrogen
4.   Accumulation of wastes
5.   Oceans acidification
6.   Climate change.


1.   Don’t keep the tap open while brushing/cleaning utensils/washing clothes and also instead of cleaning the floor with lots of water and broom wipe with wet cloth and with little water.
2.   Use cloth bags instead of polythene bags for buying vegetables /for shopping.
3.   Keep the wet and dry garbage separately and keep the green leafy waste and fruits peels waste to give to either cow or goat.
4.   Not to pour contaminated water on plants instead while washing vegetables or fruits use that water in plants or in your garden pots.
5.   Not to contaminate river or pond water by washing clothes/cleaning utensils.
6.   Instead of using private transport like scooter, motobyke, cars etc. use government transport so that there are less vehicles/cars on the road which causes traffic and pollution. Also to reduce traffic and pollution if any car/motobyke/scooter is used for transport it shall be used cooperatively with 2-4 persons so that the petrol/diesel is consumed less.
7.   Use all the natural resources judiciously so that coming generations can also use them proportionately.
8.   Buy sustainably certified wood products.
9.   Consume organic food.
10.                Use cycle for short distances to reduce pollution and for less consumption of petrol/diesel /any vehicle.
11.                Reduce meat consumption.
12.                Follow the 3 r’s—reuse, reduce and recycle, for example: distilled vinegar for cleaning and also buy less stuff i.e. buy only what is required, cook only what is required.
13.                Don’t put the food waste in the dustbin instead give to cow/goat/dog to eat.
14.                Use environment friendly cleaning products and detergents.
15.                While consuming the LPG gas don’t keep the food for extra time, cook/warm food again and again, cook and eat when it is required and also close the knob of the regulator after cooking and also use the pipeline gas (bio-gas) instead of cylinder gas for consumption.
16.                Reduce usage of electricity –all the members of a family shall sit together so that electricity usage is reduced and only while sleeping everyone to go to their rooms, and also use less electronic gadgets for cooking or for any other use the usage should be less so that there is conservation of electricity.
17.                Grow trees in and around our surroundings.
18.                Don’t use fertilizers in the gardens instead use organic and homemade manure.
19.                Don’t waste paper. Use the left over blank pages of note book for rough work or for calculations or for making list of products to purchase.
20.                Keep the place in and around us clean and hygiene by putting the waste in their proper place and not throwing it here and there on the road or in the lane.
21.                Give your used clothes/books/toys/and many more things which are not required by us or which are waste for use to the person who is in actual need of it that that there is less consumption and production of that product. 

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